Apart from these we are treating various movement disorders patients who are suffering with
- Generalized and focal Dystonia’s treatment:
Dystonia is a movement disorder in which your muscles contract involuntarily, causing repetitive or twisting movements.The condition can affect one part of your body (focal dystonia), two or more adjacent parts (segmental dystonia) or all parts of your body (general dystonia). The muscle spasms can range from mild to severe. They may be painful, and they can interfere with your performance of day-to-day tasks.There’s no cure for dystonia. But medications can improve symptoms. Surgery is sometimes used to disable or regulate nerves or certain brain regions in people with severe dystonia.
Dystonia affects different people in varying ways. Muscle contractions might:
- Begin in a single area, such as your leg, neck or arm. Focal dystonia that begins after age 21 usually starts in the neck, arm or face and tends to remain focal or segmental.
- Occur during a specific action, such as handwriting.
- Worsen with stress, fatigue or anxiety.
- Become more noticeable over time.
Areas of the body that can be affected include:
- Neck (cervical dystonia).Contractions cause your head to twist and turn to one side, or pull forward or backward, sometimes causing pain.
- Rapid blinking or involuntary spasms cause your eyes to close (blepharospasms) and make it difficult for you to see. Spasms usually aren’t painful but might increase when you’re in bright light, under stress or interacting with people. Your eyes might feel dry.
- Jaw or tongue (oromandibular dystonia).You might experience slurred speech, drooling, and difficulty chewing or swallowing. Oromandibular dystonia can be painful and often occurs in combination with cervical dystonia or blepharospasms.
- Voice box and vocal cords (spasmodic dystonia).You might have a tight or whispering voice.
- Hand and forearm.Some types of dystonia occur only while you do a repetitive activity, such as writing (writer’s dystonia) or playing a specific musical instrument (musician’s dystonia).
The exact cause of dystonia isn’t known. But it might involve altered nerve-cell communication in several regions of the brain. Some forms of dystonia are inherited.
Dystonia also can be a symptom of another disease or condition, including:
- Parkinson’s disease
- Huntington’s disease
- Wilson’s disease
- Traumatic brain injury
- Birth injury
- Brain tumours or certain disorders that develop in some people with cancer (paraneoplastic syndromes)
- Oxygen deprivation or carbon monoxide poisoning
- Infections, such as tuberculosis or encephalitis
- Reactions to certain medications or heavy metal poisoning
To manage your muscle contractions, your doctor might recommend a combination of medications, therapy or surgery.
Injections of botulinum toxin (Botox, Dysport, others) into specific muscles might reduce or eliminate your muscle contractions and improve your abnormal postures. Injections are usually repeated every three to four months.
Side effects are generally mild and temporary. They can include weakness, dry mouth or voice changes.
Other medications target chemicals in your brain (neurotransmitters) that affect muscle movement. The options include:
- Carbidopa-levodopa (Duopa, Rytary, others).This medication can increase levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine.
- Trihexyphenidyl and benztropine (Cogentin).These two medications act on neurotransmitters other than dopamine. Side effects can include memory loss, blurred vision, drowsiness, dry mouth and constipation.
- Tetrabenazine (Xenazine) and deutetrabenazine (Austedo).These two medications block dopamine. Side effects can include sedation, nervousness, depression treatment or insomnia.
- Diazepam (Valium), clonazepam (Klonopin) and baclofen (Lioresal, Gablofen).These medications reduce neurotransmission and might help some forms of dystonia. They may cause side effects, such as drowsiness.
If your symptoms are severe, your doctor might recommend:
- Deep brain stimulation.Electrodes are surgically implanted into a specific part of your brain and connected to a generator implanted in your chest. The generator sends electrical pulses to your brain that might help control your muscle contractions. The settings on the generator can be adjusted to treat your specific condition.
- Selective denervation surgery.This procedure, which involves cutting the nerves that control muscle spasms, might be an option to treat some types of dystonia that haven’t been successfully treated using other therapies.